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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
September-December 2020
Volume 3 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 87-129

Online since Friday, November 6, 2020

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METHODOLOGIES  

Survey research methods: Preparing a validity argument p. 87
George M Harrison, Katie A Azama
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_32_20  
Validity occupies a central role in studies that use survey instruments to contribute to their research conclusions. In a typical process, researchers collect survey data, draw inferential claims about what those data mean, and imply how these interpretations should be used. In this article, we introduce the argument-based approach to validation as a means to clarify and evaluate these claims and their underlying assumptions. We provide an example of how to prepare an argument by stating the proposed interpretations of a nurse practitioner survey along with the anticipated challenges to these inferential claims. We propose the types of evidence we need to counter these challenges and anticipate the limitations that will remain. Using this approach, we economize our validation work, identify evidence that we might otherwise overlook, and avert overstated claims. Researchers can employ similar methods to document their validation work and further strengthen their larger research conclusions.
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Assessing equivalency during the implementation of a health profession's program to a distant campus: Development of a distant campus evaluation tool p. 93
Theresa A Bacon-Baguley, Martina I Reinhold
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_26_20  
Universities are constantly looking at technology driven approaches in providing distant education. As technology evolves, another layer of evaluation is essential to assure the mode of delivery does not interfere with the delivery of content. Although guidelines are available for evaluating an academic program, there are no evaluation tools published to assess the equivalency of education when a program expands to a distant campus. This manuscript describes the development and utilization of a tool to assess equivalency in delivery of a program to a distant campus that utilizes videoconferencing technology in delivering the curriculum. The tool was based on four major areas of potential concern when using technology to deliver the curriculum: (1) technology limitations, (2) confidence in the system, (3) faculty ability to deliver the content, and (4) resources available at each site. Data obtained from implementing the tool identified site specific concerns, as well as concerns common to both sites.
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SHORT REPORT Top

Students' perceptions of COVID-19 impact on experiential learning p. 101
Jamielynn C Sebaaly, Lisa Brennan, Jenn Wilson, Lisa Meade, Wesley Haltom, Sarah A Nisly
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_24_20  
The COVID-19 pandemic has had an undeniable effect on medical education, particularly experiential education. Our institution conducted a brief, anonymous survey of nursing, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physical therapy, and physician assistant students engaged in experiential education during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic to assess diverse student health professionals' perceptions of the pandemic. Based on the survey results, COVID-19 had a significant impact on students, including concerns for mental health and the quality of experiential education. The majority of students considered themselves to be essential workers, citing their need to learn, and a professional responsibility to serve; others expressed concerns of exposure risk to COVID-19 and use of personal protective equipment when supplies may be limited. Students requested increased communication, transparency, and financial support during the hardship of COVID-19. Educators and administrators should strive to address these concerns at their respective institutions, through dedicated resources to communication, mental health, and financial aid.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH Top

Impostor phenomenon in veterinary medicine p. 105
Ryan Appleby, Maria Evola, Kenneth Royal
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_17_20  
Background: Impostor phenomenon (IP), an internal perception of intellectual phoniness despite personal achievements, has been reported and evaluated in a number of professions, including doctors, dentists, pharmacists, and academic faculty. To date, this phenomenon has not been evaluated in the veterinary medicine. Methods: To examine the prevalence of IP in veterinary medicine, we surveyed veterinary students, house officers, and veterinarians at a large college of veterinary medicine. Survey measures included the Clance IP Scale (CIPS) and Young Impostor Scale (YIS). Results: The prevalence of IP in our population was 50%, 68%, and 34%, among students, house officers, and faculty, respectively, based on the responses to the CIPS. The prevalence of IP was 45%, 60%, and 26%, among students, house officers, and faculty, respectively, based on the responses to the YIS. Conclusion: Among veterinary students, house officers and faculty IP are experienced to a similar degree as that reported in other health professions.
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The effectiveness of an operating room etiquette video on medical student comfort in the gynecologic operating room p. 110
Mallory A Stuparich, Alexandra I Melnyk, Heather L Hohmann, Jessica K Lee, Marnie H Bertolet, Nicole M Donnellan
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_27_20  
Background: Medical students spend a large portion of their obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) rotation in the operating room (OR). We identified a deficit in appropriate OR orientation and created a 10-min video reviewing OR etiquette and fundamental skills. Our primary aim was to investigate the effect of this video on medical students' comfort and self-assessed performance in the gynecologic OR. Our secondary aim was to examine if OR personnel rated students' performance higher 8 months after video introduction. Materials and Methods: A prospective, cohort study of 71 3rd- and 4th-year medical students participating in the core OB/GYN clerkship at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC). All medical student participants watched the video once during their clerkship orientation and had continuous online access. Participants completed a pre- and posttest survey assessing their comfort with various OR tasks. After each OR day, participants completed a brief self-assessment of their OR performance. OR staff were surveyed on medical student performance before and after video implementation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the signed-rank test, and Fisher's exact test via SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Results: Most students reported improvement on the daily self-assessment. Students without prior surgical experience demonstrated greater improvement in comfort with most OR tasks. OR staff perception of medical students changed favorably after video implementation in several domains. Conclusions: A brief video detailing OR etiquette and fundamental skills is an easily implemented resource to clarify OR tasks that often produce unnecessary anxiety for students. Improved OR staff perception of medical student performance may help streamline OR functioning.
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Veterinary medical students' perspectives on traditional and pass-fail grading models in preclinical training p. 116
Kenneth Royal, Mari-Wells Hedgpeth, Keven Flammer
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_34_19  
Background: There is current debate about the merits of traditional (e.g., A, B, C…; 4.0, 3.0, 2.0…, etc.,) versus pass-fail (P/F) (e.g., P/F) grading models in medical education. The purpose of this study was to explore veterinary students' perspectives about the pros and cons of traditional and P/F grading approaches. Methods: This study involved a census sample of 3rd and 4th year veterinary medical students at one veterinary college in the United States. Results: Students held widely different opinions about the two popular grading models. Students favoring traditional grading tend to cite reasons such as increased motivations to learn, more precise and accurate measures, improved feedback quality and advantages when applying for internships and residency. Students favoring P/F grading tend to cite reasons such as improved health and wellness, more genuine learning, reduced competition among students, training would better imitate veterinary practice, and P/F grading would overcome problems associated with inaccurate grading. Conclusions: Some students' perceptions about grading are not rooted in research evidence. Thus, this study not only identifies common beliefs about popular grading models, but also identifies potential concerns that policy-makers will have to contend with should institutions elect to revise their grading policies.
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Exploring fourth-year students' perceptions of the hidden curriculum of a doctor of veterinary medicine program through written reflections p. 121
Andrea J Kunze, Christopher Seals
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_23_20  
Introduction: Hidden curriculum (HC) is embedded into interactions and learning opportunities involved with a formal curriculum. The curriculum of US-based Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) Programs is still understudied. We explored how fourth-year students perceive the HC during their final clinical year in a US-based DVM program. Methods: We used a thematic analysis approach that involved iterative steps of coding and re-coding to explore fourth-year DVM students' perceptions of the HC. We analyzed 182 students' written reflections to a brief reading on HC in veterinary medicine and collected reflections from three cohorts of students during their clinical (4th) year. Results: The three features of the HC (individual development process [IDP], teaching–learning environment [TLE], and communication approaches) were well represented from the coding analysis of fourth-year student reflections. From the three larger features of HC, a total of twenty sub features emerged. The sub features were reported as different frequencies, with the IDP and TLE sub features being reported the most. The different features and sub features of HC are interdependent and further illustrate the complexities of HC. Moreover, findings show that HC is made up of various elements that create a unique HC of DVM programs. Conclusion: Student perceptions of the HC in veterinary settings are diverse and portray many interrelated themes that come together to form a unique HC culture that is supplementary to the formal curriculum of a DVM setting.
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NOTICE OF RETRACTION Top

Retraction: The utility of telegram® in online problem based learning during COVID 19 pandemic p. 129

DOI:10.4103/2590-1761.300079  
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