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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2019
Volume 2 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-50

Online since Thursday, May 30, 2019

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SPECIAL REPORTS  

Student american veterinary medical association duty hours guidelines p. 1
Stéphie-Anne C Duliepre, Ashika Seshadri, Sarah L Neuser, Alexander McFarland, Meggan M Gray, Erin Malone, Laura Nafe, Derrick Hall
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_11_19  
At the 2011 Student American Veterinary Medical Association (SAVMA) Symposium, the SAVMA House of Delegates officially endorsed its Duty Hours Guidelines. The purpose of the guidelines was to provide guidance to veterinary students at all SAVMA Chapters on appropriate duty hours during clinical rotations. A need to revisit the duty hour guidelines arose in 2018 as veterinary students throughout the United States expressed concerns with the applicability of some guidelines in their clinical years. To reflect the needs of all SAVMA Chapters, the guidelines were revised in light of current veterinary medical trends. Feedback was solicited from students and faculty at all 34 SAVMA Chapters with clinical programs via surveys and in person meetings. A total of 19 Chapters provided input that highlighted areas for improvement. Thus, SAVMA wishes to make clear the needs of veterinary students on their clinical rotations and provide revised duty hours guidelines. Although SAVMA does not have the regulatory authority to enforce compliance, the organization strongly encourages all AVMA-accredited institutions to both embrace and comply with the newly revised and recommended guidelines.
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Ten years of experience with a veterinary credential responder course p. 4
Dianne Dunning, Barrett Slenning, Jimmy Tickel, David C Dorman
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_28_18  
Training of veterinary students to improve their ability to respond to disaster events that affect livestock and companion animals is an important facet of veterinary education. Just over 10 years ago, the North Carolina (NC) State University College of Veterinary Medicine worked collaboratively with the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service's Emergency Management Program and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, to develop a competency-based Veterinary Credential Responder (VCR) course. This special report reflects on this experience and provides a detailed description of the current VCR course. The 2-week VCR course combines lecture, online, experiential, and group exercises to meet entry-level federal credentialing requirements. Students gain a working knowledge of emergency management, emergency operation plans, and emergency support functions. Over 1000 veterinary students have received the VCR credential making them eligible to participate as deployable members of NC Veterinary Response Corps.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH Top

Law enforcement education and training: A review of literature and critical analysis p. 10
Gilbert Singletary
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_10_19  
Background: Recent killings of unarmed Black males murdered on national television has given rise to the successful prosecution of law enforcement officers, as well as new inquiries into officer discretion when applying deadly force. However, few scholars have called into question the methods used to train law enforcement officers, and how academy training prepares law enforcement officers to engage Black males. This research sought to provide a conceptual and cognitive framework for understanding deadly encounters between law enforcement and Black males and provide evidence-based content and recommendations to law enforcement to improve curricula and officer training. Methodology: Using case study methodology, a conflict between a Black male and a law enforcement officer is examined. Results: The results of the study reveal that current law enforcement training and education do not adequately prepare officers with the psychological tools needed to navigate the adversarial relationship between Black males and members of law enforcement. A combination of past experiences and behavior cues elicit responses from both Black males and law enforcement officers that often result in deadly encounters. Conclusions: There is no standardized curriculum for police officers across the United States. The majority of law enforcement training programs focus on physical and tactical elements with strength and firearms training at the core. A robust training that prepares officers for what they will experience in the field is warranted.
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Interprofessional leadership development for health professions learners: A program and outcomes review p. 19
Madeline C Aulisio, Leslie N Woltenberg, Erika F Erlandson, Marianne E Lorensen
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_1_19  
Background: Interprofessional collaborative care has become a preferred model for patient-centered health care, and effective participation in interprofessional teams has emerged as a core expectation of all providers. In response to this change in the healthcare landscape, Leadership Legacy was designed as an extracurricular enrichment opportunity to complement the formal curriculum by enhancing participants' collaboration, leadership, and teamwork skills. This cohort-based interprofessional leadership development program for health profession learners was built on a foundation of leadership theory, specifically emotional intelligence, and the interprofessional education collaborative competencies. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study with a pre- and post-test mixed method design was used to determine changes in students' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge that resulted from participation in Leadership Legacy. Results: Results of the 2-year study indicate that participation in the program produced learners who reported statistically significant gains in knowledge of educational requirements and scope of practice of other healthcare professionals, satisfaction measures of the experience, interprofessional competencies, and attitudes toward healthcare team and team understanding measures. Conclusions: Together the elements of Leadership Legacy, when viewed through the lens of leadership theory, provide an opportunity whereby interprofessional learners engage in activities designed to increase emotional intelligence and stimulate social change. These same activities also enable future practitioners to develop skills directly related to critical leadership competencies such as conflict management and resolution, effective communication, feedback agility, and project management.
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Understanding veterinary students' intrinsic, extrinsic, and lifestyle values p. 27
Amy M Snyder, Kenneth D Royal
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_4_19  
Introduction: Workplace values are a significant factor in facilitating successful transitions from the classroom to the workforce and in the career development process. Furthermore, employees whose value system aligns with that of their coworkers and leaders report higher rates of job satisfaction. This study sought to determine what current doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) students' value with respect to intrinsic, extrinsic, and lifestyle factors. Methods: A modified version of the work values checklist was administered to 100 3rd-year students at a large veterinary school located in the United States. Results: The three values rated most important among participants were “Have fun in your life and at work,” “Feel respected for your work,” and “Gain a sense of achievement.” The three values rated least important were “Be involved in politics,” “Compete with others,” and “Live abroad.” Conclusion: Overall, intrinsic and lifestyle values appear to play a larger role in DVM students' workplace preferences than extrinsic values. Researchers are encouraged to replicate this study at other institutions to determine the extent to which findings from this study are generalizable across the veterinary medical profession.
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The impact of team training on perceptions of team functioning during 3rd year veterinary surgery p. 34
April A Kedrowicz, Sarah Hammond, Elizabeth M Hardie
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_7_19  
Introduction: Team communication is paramount for success in veterinary medicine. Methods: This qualitative study explores the impact of team communication training on students' perceptions of performance and assessment of team functioning during junior surgery by comparing two different classes. The class of 2017 was not formally trained in team communication before their participation in junior surgery, while the class of 2018 participated in training offered through a dedicated team communication course. Results: Students' experiences as described in their own words revealed qualitatively different experiences and challenges associated with being a part of a year-long surgery team for both cohorts. Team training impacted students' ability to plan and organize their work, navigate disagreement, and facilitated a high level of cohesiveness. Conclusions: These findings suggest that team training makes a difference in students' experiences and enhances perceptions of communication, coordination, and collaborative processes.
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SHORT RESEARCH REPORT Top

Long-term retention of applied knowledge and problem-solving skills after completing an online learning module on infectious diseases p. 40
Kieran Walsh, Gytautas Cvirka, Matthew Homer
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_6_19  
BMJ Learning is the online learning service of the British Medical Journal (BMJ). It provides online resources to help doctors learn and improve their practice. E-learning resources have a pretest whereby learners can assess their baseline knowledge and skills and then an immediate posttest so that they can test themselves at the end. Evaluation of the pretest and posttest scores reveals that users improve their scores over the course of the learning. However, this only measures short-term improvement. The purpose of this evaluation is to estimate whether this improvement is sustained. We invited users of BMJ Learning who completed a learning module on anthrax to repeat the posttest 8 months after they completed the module. The mean pretest score of these users was 63.3%, the mean immediate posttest score was 82.6%, and the mean long-term posttest score was 81.1%. The differences between the pretest and both posttests were statistically significant (P < 0.001).
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METHODOLOGY Top

Cost and value in health professions education: Key underlying theoretical perspectives p. 42
Kieran Walsh, George Rivers, Dragan Ilic, Stephen Maloney
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_5_19  
Background: Health professions education is expensive. There has been a growing realization of this cost, and this realization has led many educators to explore new models of health professions education that could be both low cost and high value. This, in turn, has led to a small but growing research base in the field. However, until now, new research and practice has largely proceeded in the absence of theory. Studies of the cost-effectiveness, cost benefit, and cost utility of health professions education have been carried out with little consideration of potential theoretical underpinnings. This article attempts to redress this current shortcoming in the literature. It outlines a number of economic theories that are likely to be most relevant to health professions education. Theories: A number of theories are available that can underpin thinking, research, and practice in the field of cost and value in health professions education. The most relevant theories include human capital theory, signaling or screening theory, the cost-of-production theory of value, the theory of supply and demand, and cost and productivity theory. These different theories offer contrasting approaches to illuminate and understand the complex nature of cost and value in health professions education. However, given the different perspectives of educational stakeholders (e.g., learners, teachers, institutions, and governments), no single theory is likely to address all their contrasting needs. Indeed, some of the theories complement each other (e.g., human capital theory and supply and demand theory) insofar as human capital is a resource that is subject to the forces of supply and demand. Conclusions: Theories that relate to cost and value in health professions education should influence research methodology and practice in this field. In turn, research findings should feed thinking about theory and should enable the development of more profound theoretical underpinnings of research.
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Survey research methods: A guide for creating post-stratification weights to correct for sample bias p. 48
Kenneth D Royal
DOI:10.4103/EHP.EHP_8_19  
Nonrepresentative data pose one of the greatest validity threats in survey research. Samples that are underrepresented and/or overrepresented based on demographic subgroups can introduce bias that distorts both the accuracy and the inferences made about the results. This article discusses the concept of poststratification weighting, a post hoc statistical procedure used to correct for sampling bias in survey research studies. Procedural steps for calculating poststratification weights are presented, and an example involving a simulated cohort of students in a medical school is provided for demonstration purposes. SPSS statistical software coding is presented to help researchers get started with their own calculations of poststratification weights.
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